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What is the difference between osmotic potential and osmotic pressure?

What is the difference between osmotic potential and osmotic pressure?



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Which term is used to calculate water potential? Does osmotic potential mean the same as solute potential?


Osmotic pressure: pressure applied by a solution to prevent the inward flow of water across a semi-permeable membrane.

Osmotic potential: the potential of water molecules to move from a hypotonic solution to a hypertonic solution across a semi-permeable membrane.

Osmotic pressure can be calculated using the following formula:

$$Π = iMRT$$

where $Π$ is the osmotic pressure in atm

$i$ = van 't Hoff factor of the solute.

$M$ = molar concentration in mol/L

$R$ = universal gas constant = 0.08206 L·atm/mol·K

$T$ = absolute temperature in K

The following page has a worked out example.

As for your question on solute potential vs osmotic potential, the answer is that they are indeed the same. You can compare the formula for $Psi_{pi}$ on the wikipedia page and the page of this pearson textbook. These formulas are the same:

$Psi_{pi} = -Π =-iMRT$

So there's a simple relationship between osmotic pressure and osmotic potential.


Difference between water potential and osmotic potential?

In terms of biology, yes, they're the same
(Original post by idk01)
In terms of biology, yes, they're the same Nice. thanks again. good to be clear it out

Quick Reply

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Differences among OP (Ѱs),TP (Ѱp) , WP and DPD (Ѱw) | Plants Physiology

1. It is potential pressure that can develop ill ii solution when it is separated from pure solvent by a semipermeable membrane.

2. It can develop in both confined and unconfined systems.

3. It is dependent upon 3 the number of solute particles in the solution.

4. OP or Ѱs changes slightly in an osmotic system.

5. It helps in retaining water inside cells.

6. OP or Ѱs causes movement of water across a semipermeable membrane.

Difference # TP (Ѱp):

1. Its hydrostatic pressure which develops in a system due to osmotic entry of solvent in it.

2. It develops only in a confined system.

3. It is dependent upon the amount of water that enters a confined system.

4. It is variable and changes from zero to equal the OP.

5. It provides turgidity to the cells, tissues and softer organs.

6. Development of turgor pressure or pressure potential is essential for growth of cells.

Difference # WP (Ѱw):

1. It is the force exerted by the wall against expansion of osmotic system.

2. Wall pressure occurs in a confined system.

3. It is the resistance, the wall holds over the expanding osmotic system and is, therefore, dependent upon TP or Ѱp as well as nature of wall.

4. It is commonly equal and opposite to TP or Ѱp.

5. Wall pressure prevents bursting of cells and limits expansion.

6. Reduction of wall pressure is required for growth of cells.

Difference # DPD (Ѱw):

1. It is reduction in diffusion pressure or free energy of a solvent in an osmotic system over pure solvent.

2. It is found both in confined and unconfined systems.

3. It is dependent upon OP or Ѱs of the system, OP or of outside solution and the resistance that system puts against entry of more solvent into it.

4. It varies from zero to equal the OP or Ѱs.

5. It control entry of water into cell and water relations amongst cells.

6. DPD or Ѱw determines weather a cell will lose or gain water from an external solution or adjacent cells.


"Explain The Relationship Between Solute Concentration And Osmotic Pressure" Essays and Research Papers

Water moves from an area of LOW concentration of Solute to an area of HIGH concentration of solute through a semi-or fully permeable membrane by the process. Water moves constantly through the cell's membrane its estimated that about 250 times the volume of a single cell moves through 1 per second This continues until the solute concentration reaches equilibrium It is convenient to express the available energy per unit volume in terms of "osmotic pressure". It is customary to express this.

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DISCUSSIONS ----------------------------------------------------------- 7 * CONCLUSION ----------------------------------------------------------- 8 * REFERENCE ----------------------------------------------------------- 9 TITLE Osmotic pressure within red blood cell. INTRODUCTION Osmosis is a passive movement of water molecules going across the partially permeable membrane. It is a very spontaneous process due to the downhill energy flow known as “water potential” by which, water.

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Osmosis and Osmotic Pressure

higher concentration to a region of lower concentration through a cell membrane or other semi-permeable membrane until an equilibrium is reached. It is a special case of diffusion (passive transport). Basic Explanation : Osmosis can occur when there is a partially permeable membrane, such as a cell membrane. When a cell is submerged in water, the water molecules pass through the cell membrane from an area of low solute concentration to high solute concentration.

Premium Van 't Hoff factor , Cell , Membrane biology 540 Words | 3 Pages

Osmotic Pressure

Osmosis occurs when different concentrations of water are separated by a differentially permeable membrane. One example of a differentially permeable membrane within a living cell is the plasma membrane. • Hypotonic : ➢ Having a lesser osmotic pressure in a fluid compared to another fluid, as in a ‘hypotonic solution’ – compare: hypertonic and isotonic • Hypertonic: ➢ Having a higher osmotic pressure in a fluid relative to another fluid. .

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The primary challenge of inhabiting a high salinity environment is balancing osmotic pressure. Since these environments contain high salt concentrations, water from the cells of organisms spontaneously diffuses out of the cytoplasm in order to restore osmotic balance. This leaves cells dehydrated and thus, eventually causes cell death. In order to ameliorate this predicament, halophiles use one of two unique strategies that function to increase the osmolarity of the cell, both of which as illustrated.

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to Activity 1: Simulating Dialysis (Simple Diffusion). Which solute(s) were able to pass through the 20 MWCO membrane? None According to your results, which solute had the highest molecular weight? Albumin Which solute displayed the highest rate of diffusion through the 200 MWCO membrane? NACI_ Using the data from Chart 1, explain the relationship between the rate of diffusion and the size of the solute. The smaller the solute particle, the greater the rate of diffusion. Facilitated Diffusion .

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Increasing Sucrose Concentration Deceases Change in Mass of Potato Tuber Segments Relative Osmotic Concentration Determined by Percent Change in Mass

Results The relative osmotic concentration was determined by measuring the percent change in mass of the potato tissues. Change in mass was measured of six solutions, each containing different levels of concentration (0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, and 0.5). The percent change in mass decreased as sucrose concentration increased, therefore, relative osmotic concentration also decreased as sucrose concentration increased. However, the osmotic concentration of 0.2 M sucrose solution was relatively greater.

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Review Sheet 2

Dialysis (Simple Diffusion). Which solute(s) were able to pass through the 20 MWCO membrane? None of the solutes were able to pass through the 20 MWCO membrane. A possible reason to why none of the of these solutes were able to pass through was because the solutes could have been too big to be transported. According to your results, which solute had the highest molecular weight? The solute that had the highest molecular weight was Albumin. Which solute displayed the highest rate of diffusion.

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Cell Life

comprehension and understanding. Based on the labs you completed, answer the following questions: 1. Which solute(s) were able to diffuse into the right beaker from the left beaker? Which did not? Answer: The solute(s) that were able to diffuse Na+/Cl- , Urea, Glucose. The solute that didn’t was Albumin. 2. Explain the relationship between the rate of diffusion and the size of the solute. What do you think changes in temperature such as cold/hot would have on the diffusion rate? Answer: The.

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Review Sheet 1

1: Simulating Dialysis (Simple Diffusion). Which solute(s) were able to pass through the 20 MWCO membrane? NONE 1. According to your results, which solute had the highest molecular weight? Albumin 2. Which solute displayed the highest rate of diffusion through the 200 MWCO membrane? Na+Cl 3. Using the data from Chart 1, explain the relationship between the rate of diffusion and the size of the solute. The larger the solute the smaller the rate of diffusion Facilitated Diffusion.

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Contents

Jacobus van 't Hoff found a quantitative relationship between osmotic pressure and solute concentration, expressed in the following equation:

where Π is osmotic pressure, i is the dimensionless van 't Hoff index, c is the molar concentration of solute, R is the ideal gas constant, and T is the temperature in kelvins. This formula applies when the solute concentration is sufficiently low that the solution can be treated as an ideal solution. The proportionality to concentration means that osmotic pressure is a colligative property. Note the similarity of this formula to the ideal gas law in the form p = n V R T = c gas R T RT=c_< ext>RT> where n is the total number of moles of gas molecules in the volume V, and n/V is the molar concentration of gas molecules. Harmon Northrop Morse and Frazer showed that the equation applied to more concentrated solutions if the unit of concentration was molal rather than molar [5] so when the molality is used this equation has been called the Morse equation.

For more concentrated solutions the van 't Hoff equation can be extended as a power series in solute concentration, c. To a first approximation,

The Pfeffer cell was developed for the measurement of osmotic pressure.

Osmotic pressure measurement may be used for the determination of molecular weights.

Osmotic pressure is an important factor affecting cells. Osmoregulation is the homeostasis mechanism of an organism to reach balance in osmotic pressure.

    is the presence of a solution that causes cells to shrink. is the presence of a solution that causes cells to swell. is the presence of a solution that produces no change in cell volume.

When a biological cell is in a hypotonic environment, the cell interior accumulates water, water flows across the cell membrane into the cell, causing it to expand. In plant cells, the cell wall restricts the expansion, resulting in pressure on the cell wall from within called turgor pressure. Turgor pressure allows herbaceous plants to stand upright. It is also the determining factor for how plants regulate the aperture of their stomata. In animal cells excessive osmotic pressure can result in cytolysis.

Osmotic pressure is the basis of filtering ("reverse osmosis"), a process commonly used in water purification. The water to be purified is placed in a chamber and put under an amount of pressure greater than the osmotic pressure exerted by the water and the solutes dissolved in it. Part of the chamber opens to a differentially permeable membrane that lets water molecules through, but not the solute particles. The osmotic pressure of ocean water is about 27 atm. Reverse osmosis desalinates fresh water from ocean salt water.

Here, the difference in pressure of the two compartments Π ≡ p ′ − p is defined as the osmotic pressure exerted by the solutes. Holding the pressure, the addition of solute decreases the chemical potential (an entropic effect). Thus, the pressure of the solution has to be increased in an effort to compensate the loss of the chemical potential.

We can write the left hand side as:

The activity coefficient is a function of concentration and temperature, but in the case of dilute mixtures, it is often very close to 1.0, so

For aqueous solutions of salts, ionisation must be taken into account. For example, 1 mole of NaCl ionises to 2 moles of ions.


Key Terms

  • turgidity: Turgidity (turgor pressure) pushes the plasma membrane against the cell wall of plant, bacteria, and fungi cells as well as those protiat cells which have cell walls.

Osmotic pressure is the pressure which needs to be applied to a solution to prevent the inward flow of water across a semipermeable membrane. It is also defined as the minimum pressure needed to nullify osmosis.The phenomenon of osmotic pressure arises from the tendency of a pure solvent to move through a semi-permeable membrane and into a solution containing a solute to which the membrane is impermeable. This process is of vital importance in biology as the cell&rsquos membrane is selective toward many of the solutes found in living organisms.

Figure: Salami: The original meaning of the word is: all kind of salted (meats).

Osmosis causes water to flow from an area of low solute concentration to an area of high solute concentration until the two areas have an equal ratio of solute to water. Normally, the solute diffuses toward equilibrium as well however, all cells are surrounded by a lipid bilayer cell membrane which permits the flow of water in and out of the cell but restricts the flow of solute under many circumstances. As a result, when a cell is placed in a hypotonic solution, water rushes into the membrane, increasing its volume. Eventually, the cell&rsquos membrane is enlarged such that it pushes against the cell&rsquos rigid wall. In an isotonic solution, water flows into the cell at the same rate it flows out. When a cell is placed in a hypertonic solution, water actually flows out of the cell into the surrounding solution causing the cells to shrink and lose its turgidity. Two of the most common substances used to create hypertonic environment for microorganisms and prevent them from growing are salt and sugar. They are widely applied in food preservation.

Table salt (sodium chloride) is the primary ingredient used in meat curing. Removal of water and addition of salt to meat creates a solute-rich environment where osmotic pressure draws water out of microorganisms, thereby retarding their growth. Doing this requires a concentration of salt of nearly 20%.

Sugar is used to preserve fruits, either in syrup with fruit such as apples, pears, peaches, apricots, plums or in crystallized form where the preserved material is cooked in sugar to the point of crystallisation and the resultant product is then stored dry. The purpose of sugaring is to create an environment hostile to microbial life and prevent food spoilage. From time to time, sugaring has also been used for non-food preservation. For example, honey was used as part of the mummification process in some ancient Egyptian rites. However, the growth of molds and fungi is not suppressed as efficiently as the growth of bacteria.


What is the difference between osmotic potential and osmotic pressure? - Biology

Occasionally, students become confused when thinking about osmosis and osmotic pressure because, contrary to the everyday meaning of language, water does not flow during osmosis from regions of higher osmotic pressure to regions of lower pressure. Rather, water diffuses from regions of higher solvent activity to regions of lower activity and this flow produces a pressure. Not vice-versa! Plant biologists minimize this conceptual confusion by viewing osmosis in a different manner.

When water moves from one compartment to another in our simulations, it does work and consequently has potential energy. Plant biologists have coined the term water potential (psi) to describe this energy, and they define osmosis as the movement of water from regions of higher potential (activity) to regions of lower potential (activity). Equilibrium between two compartments is reached when their water potentials are equal.

By convention, the water potential of distilled water is zero and it becomes more negative as solutions become more concentrated. Thus, net diffusion of water occurs from regions of less negative potential to ones of more negative (or lower) potential and continues until the potentials become equal. This way of visualizing osmosis eliminates confusion for many because water potential is more closely related to the behavior of water than is the concept of pressure. For this reasons, we've also used this thermodynamic view of water activity and potential energy in our presentation.

Osmotic pressure is still a useful concept, however, especially when the differential movement of water is related to other hydraulic phenomena such as arteriole pressure (in the physiology of kidneys) and to the use of reverse osmosis for desalinating sea water, using hydraulic pressure to "create" distilled water from a saline solution through a selectively permeable membrane.


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What is the difference between osmotic potential and osmotic pressure? - Biology

why is osmotic pressure is positive and osmotic potential is negative??

Krishnakoli Datta answered this

Osmotic pressure is a hydrostatic pressure exerted to the solution to prevent the flow of water through the semi permeable membrane. This pressure is generally created by the solute present in the solution. As a solution be it hypertonic or hypotonic will always have solute in it, the osmotic pressure will always be there may be more or less. Thus, the osmotic pressure of a solution will always be positive.

Osmotic potential is the potential of water molecules to move between solutions of different concentration through semi permeable membrane. The osmotic potential of pure water is taken as zero as there is no solute present in it. As a solution will always have some solute, the amout of water will be lesser than pure water. Thus the osmotic potential of a solution will always be negative (value less than zero).


2. Describe osmosis as a special case of diffusion. Distinguish between osmotic pressure and osmotic potential. 4. Explain why osmosis is, indirectly, an energy-dependent process in plants. 6. Can you suggest an important role for turgor in the plant?

2. Osmosis is the net movement of water across a semi-permeable membrane in order to achieve even solute concentrations on either side of the membrane.
– same general theory as diffusion but osmosis relates specifically to water
– semi-permeable membrane means the membrane allows some materials (water etc) to pass through the membrane but does not allow the passing of all materials.

This means osmosis is a special case of diffusion: the diffusion of water

Osmotic pressure is the hydrostatic pressure created by different concentrations of solutes on opposite sides of a membrane. Osmotic potential is the degree to which water will want to stay in the vascular space or in the interstitial space.

4. The movement of water through the selectively permeable membrane in pants takes place only when there is difference in energy between the two compartments i.e. water moves from higher to lower energy gradient. The movement of water will stop when the energy reaches to equal on both side. This energy is studied in terms of chemical potential which is the free energy of the substance per mole. Plants carry out osmosis by changing the solute concentration between the compartments. Whenever there will be solute with water, the chemical potential of water will decrease. Water flows from lower solute concentration to higher solute concentration. In other words water flows from higher chemical potential or free energy to lower chemical potential or free energy across the selectively permeable membrane. Thus, osmosis is indirectly an energy dependent process in plants.

6. Turgor pressure is The outward force in a plant cell when the vacuole fills up with water,causing the cell membrane to push against the cell wall. Turgor pressure is important in plants because it Gives them rigidness to stand straight and continue normal cellular functions