What is an simple way to burn glucose for visible effect?

What is an simple way to burn glucose for visible effect?

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I want to make a partially working model of the digestive system that could digest complex carbohydrates. My ultimate goal is to be able to cut up some bread, put it into the model, operate it, and eventually see some effect equivelent to glucose being used in a muscle. I obviously have a very limited buget. How could I simulate glucose being burned in some way that has a visible effect?

Edit: I'm specifically looking for some way glucose can be used to achieve some visible effect that makes sense as a metaphor for combustion, without dangerous/expensive chemicals.

You could combine the demonstration that glucose can be burned with the principle of catalysis: a sugar cube won't burn by itself if you hold a match at it. Using a bit of MnO2 or even simple ash on the cube will make it inflammable through catalysis: the MnO2 acts as catalysator (is not used up).

MnO2 (manganese(IV) oxide), a dark powder, is a safe chemical that only reacts with acids, and is insoluble in water.

Reactive hypoglycemia

Reactive hypoglycemia, postprandial hypoglycemia, or sugar crash is a term describing recurrent episodes of symptomatic hypoglycemia occurring within four hours [1] after a high carbohydrate meal in people with and without diabetes. [2] The term is not necessarily a diagnosis since it requires an evaluation to determine the cause of the hypoglycemia. [3]

Reactive hypoglycemia
Other namesPostprandial hypoglycemia, sugar crash
SymptomsClumsiness, difficulty talking, confusion, loss of consciousness, and other symptoms related to hypoglycemia
Usual onsetWithin 4 hours of a high carbohydrate meal
CausesGastric bypass surgery, over-secretion of insulin
Diagnostic methodWhipple criteria, blood glucose test during spontaneous occurrence of symptoms, HbA1c blood test, 6-hour glucose tolerance test
Differential diagnosisAlimentary hypoglycemia, factitious hypoglycemia, insulin autoimmune hypoglycemia, noninsulinoma pancreatogenous hypoglycemia syndrome, insulinoma, hereditary fructose intolerance
PreventionLow-carbohydrate diet, frequent small meals

The condition is related to homeostatic systems used by the body to control the blood sugar level. It is described as a sense of tiredness, lethargy, irritation, or hangover, although the effects can be lessened if a lot of physical activity is undertaken in the first few hours after food consumption.

The alleged mechanism for the feeling of a crash is correlated with an abnormally rapid rise in blood glucose after eating. This normally leads to insulin secretion (known as an insulin spike), which in turn initiates rapid glucose uptake by tissues, either storing it as glycogen or fat, or using it for energy production. The consequent fall in blood glucose is indicated as the reason for the "sugar crash". [4] Another cause might be hysteresis effect of insulin action, i.e., the effect of insulin is still prominent even if both plasma glucose and insulin levels were already low, causing a plasma glucose level eventually much lower than the baseline level. [5]

Sugar crashes are not to be confused with the after-effects of consuming large amounts of protein, which produces fatigue akin to a sugar crash, but are instead the result of the body prioritising the digestion of ingested food. [6]

The prevalence of this condition is difficult to ascertain because a number of stricter or looser definitions have been used. It is recommended that the term reactive hypoglycemia be reserved for the pattern of postprandial hypoglycemia which meets the Whipple criteria (symptoms correspond to measurably low glucose and are relieved by raising the glucose), and that the term idiopathic postprandial syndrome be used for similar patterns of symptoms where abnormally low glucose levels at the time of symptoms cannot be documented.

To assist in diagnosis, a doctor may order an HbA1c test, which measures the blood sugar average over the two or three months before the test. The more specific 6-hour glucose tolerance test can be used to chart changes in the patient's blood sugar levels before ingestion of a special glucose drink and at regular intervals during the six hours following to see if an unusual rise or drop in blood glucose levels occurs.

According to the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH), a blood glucose level below 70 mg/dL (3.9 mmol/L) at the time of symptoms followed by relief after eating confirms a diagnosis for reactive hypoglycemia. [1]


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Glucose, also called dextrose, one of a group of carbohydrates known as simple sugars (monosaccharides). Glucose (from Greek glykys “sweet”) has the molecular formula C6H12O6. It is found in fruits and honey and is the major free sugar circulating in the blood of higher animals. It is the source of energy in cell function, and the regulation of its metabolism is of great importance (see fermentation gluconeogenesis). Molecules of starch, the major energy-reserve carbohydrate of plants, consist of thousands of linear glucose units. Another major compound composed of glucose is cellulose, which is also linear. Dextrose is the molecule d -glucose.

A related molecule in animals is glycogen, the reserve carbohydrate in most vertebrate and invertebrate animal cells, as well as those of numerous fungi and protozoans. See also polysaccharide.

This article was most recently revised and updated by Kara Rogers, Senior Editor.

Lab 18: Use of Physical Agents to Control of Microorganisms

The next two labs deal with the inhibition, destruction, and removal of microorganisms. Control of microorganisms is essential in order to prevent the transmission of diseases and infection, stop decomposition and spoilage, and prevent unwanted microbial contamination.

Microorganisms are controlled by means of physical agents and chemical agents. Physical agents include such methods of control as high or low temperature, desiccation, osmotic pressure, radiation, and filtration. Control by chemical agents refers to the use of disinfectants, antiseptics, antibiotics, and chemotherapeutic antimicrobial chemicals.

Basic terms used in discussing the control of microorganisms include:

1. Sterilization
Sterilization is the process of destroying all living organisms and viruses. A sterile object is one free of all life forms, including bacterial endospores, as well as viruses.

2. Disinfection
Disinfection is the elimination of microorganisms, but not necessarily endospores, from inanimate objects or surfaces.

3. Decontamination
Decontamination is the treatment of an object or inanimate surface to make it safe to handle.

4 . Disinfectant
A disinfectant is an agents used to disinfect inanimate objects but generally to toxic to use on human tissues.

5 . Antiseptic
An antiseptic is an agent that kills or inhibits growth of microbes but is safe to use on human tissue.

6. Sanitizer
A sanitizer is an agent that reduces, but may not eliminate, microbial numbers to a safe level.

7 . Antibiotic
An antibiotic is a metabolic product produced by one microorganism that inhibits or kills other microorganisms.

8 . Chemotherapeutic antimicrobial chemical
Chemotherapeutic antimicrobial chemicals are synthetic chemicals that can be used therapeutically.

9 . Cidal
An agent that is cidal in action will kill microorganisms and viruses.

10 . Static
An agent that is static in action will inhibit the growth of microorganisms.

These two labs will demonstrate the control of microorganisms with physical agents, disinfectants and antiseptics, and antimicrobial chemotherapeutic agents. Keep in mind that when evaluating or choosing a method of controlling microorganisms, you must consider the following factors which may influence antimicrobial activity:

1. the concentration and kind of a chemical agent used

2. the intensity and nature of a physical agent used

3. the length of exposure to the agent

4. the temperature at which the agent is used

5. the number of microorganisms present

6. the organism itself and

7. the nature of the material bearing the microorganism.


Microorganisms have a minimum, an optimum, and a maximum temperature for growth. Temperatures below the minimum usually have a static action on microorganisms. They inhibit microbial growth by slowing down metabolism but do not necessarily kill the organism. Temperatures above the maximum usually have a cidal action, since they denature microbial enzymes and other proteins. Temperature is a very common and effective way of controlling microorganisms.

1. High Temperature

Vegetative microorganisms can generally be killed at temperatures from 50°C to 70°C with moist heat. Bacterial endospores, however, are very resistant to heat and extended exposure to much higher temperature is necessary for their destruction. High temperature may be applied as either moist heat or dry heat.

a. Moist heat

Moist heat is generally more effective than dry heat for killing microorganisms because of its ability to penetrate microbial cells. Moist heat kills microorganisms by denaturing their proteins (causes proteins and enzymes to lose their three-dimensional functional shape). It also may melt lipids in cytoplasmic membranes.

1. Autoclaving

Autoclaving employs steam under pressure. Water normally boils at 100°C however, when put under pressure, water boils at a higher temperature. During autoclaving, the materials to be sterilized are placed under 15 pounds per square inch of pressure in a pressure-cooker type of apparatus. When placed under 15 pounds of pressure, the boiling point of water is raised to 121°C, a temperature sufficient to kill bacterial endospores.

The time the material is left in the autoclave varies with the nature and amount of material being sterilized. Given sufficient time (generally 15-45 minutes), autoclaving is cidal for both vegetative organisms and endospores, and is the most common method of sterilization for materials not damaged by heat.

2. Boiling water

Boiling water (100°C) will generally kill vegetative cells after about 10 minutes of exposure. However, certain viruses, such as the hepatitis viruses, may survive exposure to boiling water for up to 30 minutes, and endospores of certain Clostridium and Bacillus species may survive even hours of boiling.

b. Dry heat

Dry heat kills microorganisms through a process of protein oxidation rather than protein coagulation. Examples of dry heat include:

1. Hot air sterilization

Microbiological ovens employ very high dry temperatures: 171°C for 1 hour 160°C for 2 hours or longer or 121°C for 16 hours or longer depending on the volume. They are generally used only for sterilizing glassware, metal instruments, and other inert materials like oils and powders that are not damaged by excessive temperature.

2. Incineration

Incinerators are used to destroy disposable or expendable materials by burning. We also sterilize our inoculating loops by incineration.

c. Pasteurization

Pasteurization is the mild heating of milk and other materials to kill particular spoilage organisms or pathogens. It does not, however, kill all organisms. Milk is usually pasteurized by heating to 71°C for at least 15 seconds in the flash method or 63-66°C for 30 minutes in the holding method.

2. Low Temperature

Low temperature inhibits microbial growth by slowing down microbial metabolism. Examples include refrigeration and freezing. Refrigeration at 5°C slows the growth of microorganisms and keeps food fresh for a few days. Freezing at -10°C stops microbial growth, but generally does not kill microorganisms, and keeps food fresh for several months.


Desiccation, or drying, generally has a static effect on microorganisms. Lack of water inhibits the action of microbial enzymes. Dehydrated and freeze-dried foods, for example, do not require refrigeration because the absence of water inhibits microbial growth.


Microorganisms, in their natural environments, are constantly faced with alterations in osmotic pressure. Water tends to flow through semipermeable membranes, such as the cytoplasmic membrane of microorganisms, towards the side with a higher concentration of dissolved materials (solute). In other words, water moves from greater water (lower solute) concentration to lesser water (greater solute) concentration.

When the concentration of dissolved materials or solute is higher inside the cell than it is outside, the cell is said to be in a hypotonic environment and water will flow into the cell (Fig. 1). The rigid cell walls of bacteria and fungi, however, prevent bursting or plasmoptysis. If the concentration of solute is the same both inside and outside the cell, the cell is said to be in an isotonic environment (Fig. 2). Water flows equally in and out of the cell. Hypotonic and isotonic environments are not usually harmful to microorganisms. However, if the concentration of dissolved materials or solute is higher outside of the cell than inside, then the cell is in a hypertonic environment (Fig. 3). Under this condition, water flows out of the cell, resulting in shrinkage of the cytoplasmic membrane or plasmolysis. Under such conditions, the cell becomes dehydrated and its growth is inhibited.

The canning of jams or preserves with a high sugar concentration inhibits bacterial growth through hypertonicity. The same effect is obtained by salt-curing meats or placing foods in a salt brine. This static action of osmotic pressure thus prevents bacterial decomposition of the food. Molds, on the other hand, are more tolerant of hypertonicity. Foods, such as those mentioned above, tend to become overgrown with molds unless they are first sealed to exclude oxygen. (Molds are aerobic.)

For more information on antigens, antibodies, and antibody production, see the following Learning Objects in your Lecture Guide :


1. Ultraviolet Radiation

The ultraviolet portion of the light spectrum includes all radiations with wavelengths from 100 nm to 400 nm. It has low wave-length and low energy. The microbicidal activity of ultraviolet (UV) light depends on the length of exposure: the longer the exposure the greater the cidal activity. It also depends on the wavelength of UV used. The most cidal wavelengths of UV light lie in the 260 nm - 270 nm range where it is absorbed by nucleic acid.

In terms of its mode of action, UV light is absorbed by microbial DNA and causes adjacent thymine bases on the same DNA strand to covalently bond together, forming what are called thymine-thymine dimers (see Fig. 4). As the DNA replicates, nucleotides do not complementary base pair with the thymine dimers and this terminates the replication of that DNA strand. However, most of the damage from UV radiation actually comes from the cell trying to repair the damage to the DNA by a process called SOS repair. In very heavily damaged DNA containing large numbers of thymine dimers, a process called SOS repair is activated as kind of a last ditch effort to repair the DNA. In this process, a gene product of the SOS system binds to DNA polymerase allowing it to synthesize new DNA across the damaged DNA. However, this altered DNA polymerase loses its proofreading ability resulting in the synthesis of DNA that itself now contains many misincorporated bases. In other words, UV radiation causes mutation and can lead to faulty protein synthesis. With sufficient mutation, bacterial metabolism is blocked and the organism dies. Agents such as UV radiation that cause high rates of mutation are called mutagens.

The effect of this inproper base pairing may be reversed to some extent by exposing the bacteria to strong visible light immediately after exposure to the UV light. The visible light activates an enzyme that breaks the bond that joins the thymine bases, thus enabling correct complementary base pairing to again take place. This process is called photoreactivation.

UV lights are frequently used to reduce the microbial populations in hospital operating rooms and sinks, aseptic filling rooms of pharmaceutical companies, in microbiological hoods, and in the processing equipment used by the food and dairy industries.

An important consideration when using UV light is that it has very poor penetrating power. Only microorganisms on the surface of a material that are exposed directly to the radiation are susceptible to destruction. UV light can also damage the eyes, cause burns, and cause mutation in cells of the skin.

2. Ionizing Radiation

Ionizing radiation, such as X-rays and gamma rays, has much more energy and penetrating power than ultraviolet radiation. It ionizes water and other molecules to form radicals (molecular fragments with unpaired electrons) that can disrupt DNA molecules and proteins. It is often used to sterilize pharmaceuticals and disposable medical supplies such as syringes, surgical gloves, catheters, sutures, and petri plates. It can also be used to retard spoilage in seafoods, meats, poultry, and fruits.

For more information on antigens, antibodies, and antibody production, see the following Learning Objects in your Lecture Guide:


Microbiological membrane filters provide a useful way of sterilizing materials such as vaccines, antibiotic solutions, animal sera, enzyme solutions, vitamin solutions, and other solutions that may be damaged or denatured by high temperatures or chemical agents. The filters contain pores small enough to prevent the passage of microbes but large enough to allow the organism-free fluid to pass through. The liquid is then collected in a sterile flask (Fig. 5). Filters with a pore diameter from 25 nm to 0.45 µm are usually used in this procedure. Filters can also be used to remove microorganisms from water and air for microbiological testing (see Appendix E).


2 plates of Trypticase Soy agar, 2 plates of 5% glucose agar, 2 plates of 10% glucose agar, 2 plates of 25% glucose agar, 2 plates of 5% NaCl agar, 2 plates of 10% NaCl agar, and 2 plates of 15% NaCl agar.

Trypticase Soy broth cultures of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus a spore suspension of the mold Aspergillus niger.

A. OSMOTIC PRESSURE PROCEDURE (to be done by tables)

1. Divide one plate of each of the following media in half. Using your inoculating loop, streak one half of each plate with E. coli and the other half with S. aureus (see Fig. 6). Incubate upside down and stacked in the petri plate holder on the shelf of the 37°C incubator corresponding to your lab section until the next lab period.

a. Trypticase Soy agar (control)
b. Trypticase Soy agar with 5% glucose
c. Trypticase Soy agar with 10% glucose
d. Trypticase Soy agar with 25% glucose
e. Trypticase Soy agar with 5% NaCl
f. Trypticase Soy agar with 10% NaCl
g. Trypticase Soy agar with 15% NaCl

2. Using a sterile swab, streak one plate of each of the following media with a spore suspension of the mold A. niger (see Fig. 7). Incubate the plates upside down at room temperature for 1 week.

a. Trypticase Soy agar (control)
b. Trypticase Soy agar with 5% glucose
c. Trypticase Soy agar with 10% glucose
d. Trypticase Soy agar with 25% glucose
e. Trypticase Soy agar with 5% NaCl
f. Trypticase Soy agar with 10% NaCl
g. Trypticase Soy agar with 15% NaCl


5 plates of Trypticase Soy agar

Trypticase Soy broth culture of Serratia marcescens


1. Using sterile swabs, streak all 5 Trypticase Soy agar plates with S. marcescens as follows:

a. Dip the swab into the culture.

b. Remove all of the excess liquid by pressing the swab against the side of the tube.

c. Streak the plate so as to cover the entire agar surface with organisms.

2. Expose 3 of the plates to UV light as follows:

a. Remove the lid of each plate and place a piece of cardboard with the letter "V" cut out of it over the top of the agar.

b. Expose the first plate to UV light for 1 second, the second plate for 3 seconds, and the third plate for 5 seconds.

c. Replace the lids and incubate the plates upside down at room temperature until the next lab period.

3. Leaving the lid on, lay the cardboard with the letter "V" cut out over the fourth plate and expose to UV light for 30 seconds. Incubate the plates upside down at room temperature with the other plates.

4. Use the fifth plate as a non-irradiated control and incubate the plates upside down at room temperature with the other plates.

NOTE: Do not look directly at the UV light as it may harm the eyes.


2 plates of Trypticase Soy agar

Trypticase Soy broth cultures of Micrococcus luteus


1. Using alcohol-flamed forceps, aseptically place a sterile membrane filter into a sterile filtration device.

2. Pour the culture of M. luteus into the top of the filter set-up.

3. Vacuum until all the liquid passes through the filter into the sterile flask.

4. With alcohol-flamed forceps, remove the filter and place it organism-side-up on the surface of a Trypticase Soy agar plate.

5. Using a sterile swab, streak the surface of another Trypticase Soy agar plate with the filtrate from the flask.

6. Incubate the plates at 37°C until the next lab period.

A. Osmotic Pressure

Observe the 2 sets of plates from the osmotic pressure experiment and record the results below.

+ = Scant growth
++ = Moderate growth
+++ = Abundant growth
- = No growth

How Do Oxygen and Glucose Reach the Cells?

Oxygen and glucose are carried in the bloodstream and enter individual cells by passing through the cell membrane via diffusion. Oxygen enters the cells through simple diffusion, while glucose, amino acids and other large insoluble compounds enter through facilitated diffusion.

Glucose first enters the body in certain foods, which are broken down into smaller particles through digestion. These small particles then pass through the walls of the small intestine to enter the bloodstream, where the glucose is dissolved into blood plasma. The glucose particles then travel through the body and are absorbed into individual cells in the capillaries.

Oxygen enters the lungs through the process of breathing. Inside the lungs, it fills tiny air sacs known as alveoli. The individual oxygen particles then pass through the alveoli into the bloodstream, where they bind with a substance in red blood cells known as hemoglobin. When the oxygenated blood reaches the capillaries, the red blood cells release the oxygen molecules, which then diffuse into the cells.

Glucose and oxygen are the two components necessary for cellular aerobic respiration. This type of respiration is not the same as breathing instead, it is a reaction through which cells extract energy from glucose. During the process, oxygen and glucose combine to produce carbon dioxide (CO2) and water. The CO2 is then removed in the same way oxygen entered the body.

Normal Regulation of Blood Glucose

The human body wants blood glucose (blood sugar) maintained in a very narrow range. Insulin and glucagon are the hormones which make this happen. Both insulin and glucagon are secreted from the pancreas, and thus are referred to as pancreatic endocrine hormones. The picture on the left shows the intimate relationship both insulin and glucagon have to each other. Note that the pancreas serves as the central player in this scheme. It is the production of insulin and glucagon by the pancreas which ultimately determines if a patient has diabetes, hypoglycemia, or some other sugar problem.

In this Article

Learn More about Blood Glucose Control

Insulin Basics: How Insulin Helps Control Blood Glucose Levels

Insulin and glucagon are hormones secreted by islet cells within the pancreas. They are both secreted in response to blood sugar levels, but in opposite fashion!

Insulin is normally secreted by the beta cells (a type of islet cell) of the pancreas. The stimulus for insulin secretion is a HIGH blood glucose. it's as simple as that! Although there is always a low level of insulin secreted by the pancreas, the amount secreted into the blood increases as the blood glucose rises. Similarly, as blood glucose falls, the amount of insulin secreted by the pancreatic islets goes down.

As can be seen in the picture, insulin has an effect on a number of cells, including muscle, red blood cells, and fat cells. In response to insulin, these cells absorb glucose out of the blood, having the net effect of lowering the high blood glucose levels into the normal range.

Glucagon is secreted by the alpha cells of the pancreatic islets in much the same manner as insulin. except in the opposite direction. If blood glucose is high, then no glucagon is secreted.

When blood glucose goes LOW, however, (such as between meals, and during exercise) more and more glucagon is secreted. Like insulin, glucagon has an effect on many cells of the body, but most notably the liver.

The Role of Glucagon in Blood Glucose Control

The effect of glucagon is to make the liver release the glucose it has stored in its cells into the bloodstream, with the net effect of increasing blood glucose. Glucagon also induces the liver (and some other cells such as muscle) to make glucose out of building blocks obtained from other nutrients found in the body (eg, protein).

Our bodies desire blood glucose to be maintained between 70 mg/dl and 110 mg/dl (mg/dl means milligrams of glucose in 100 milliliters of blood). Below 70 is termed "hypoglycemia." Above 110 can be normal if you have eaten within 2 to 3 hours. That is why your doctor wants to measure your blood glucose while you are fasting. it should be between 70 and 110. Even after you have eaten, however, your glucose should be below 180. Above 180 is termed "hyperglycemia" (which translates to mean "too much glucose in the blood"). If your 2 two blood sugar measurements above 200 after drinking a sugar-water drink (glucose tolerance test), then you are diagnosed with diabetes.

Glucose Control: Why Timing Your Exercise After Meals Matters

If you have diabetes, you’re always fighting to keep blood sugar under control. Here’s a way to dial up your efforts: Consider the timing of your workouts after meals.

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Exercising soon after eating has positive effects on blood sugar, says endocrinologist Betul Hatipoglu, MD.

Another plus? Doing this can cut your risk of heart disease.

How soon after meals? This can vary by the person. Here’s how to tell when it’s best for you.

Why it’s better to exercise soon after eating

Glucose levels hit their peak within 90 minutes of a meal, according to a 2017 study published by the journal Frontiers in Endocrinology.

Those with type 2 diabetes are supposed to keep levels at 160 mg/dl within two hours of a meal.

Because exercising reduces blood glucose concentrations, it’s a good idea to start exercising about 30 minutes after the beginning of a meal, researchers concluded.

While this is a solid guideline, it can vary for different people. Read on to find out how to ensure you’re in the safe zone for exercise.

How to tell if it’s safe to exercise

Before you begin your workout, start by measuring your blood sugar, Dr. Hatipoglu says.

When you initiate exercise, your body releases stress hormones, which can briefly raise your blood sugar.

If you have diabetes and your body doesn’t manage blood sugar well, it can increase too much during the first half hour of exercise before it begins to lower.

“If you start exercising with very high blood sugar, it might be dangerous,” she says. “You might need to wait for it to go down a bit before starting your workout.”

She offers four tips for ensuring that your glucose levels are safe for exercise:

  1. If your blood sugar level is between 150 and 180, you are in a healthy range.
  2. If your level is lower than 140 and you take insulin, you may need to eat 15 grams of carbohydrates prior to exercise so the level doesn’t drop too low.
  3. If your level is really high — 300 or more — postpone exercise for a bit and try taking a little insulin before starting.
  4. If you take insulin, check your blood sugar level after exercise to ensure that you have enough fuel. This is particularly important if you are starting a new exercise program.

The American Diabetes Association recommends about 150 minutes of moderate exercise or 75 minutes of rigorous exercise weekly.

Take extra precautions with evening exercise

Exercise does two things for those who have type 2 diabetes, says Dr. Hatipoglu.

First, your muscles need energy to work. To feed them, your body burns sugar as an energy source, lowering the glucose levels in your blood.

Second, when you exercise regularly, it helps your body use insulin more efficiently. This can lower your blood sugar levels for up to 12 hours after you exercise.

Also, keeping blood sugar low on a regular basis can dramatically reduce your risk of heart disease, Dr. Hatipoglu says.

Every person reacts a little differently to exercise, so she recommends tracking your blood sugar levels for four to five hours after post-meal exercise to see what your trend is. This can help you determine if your levels are healthy or drop too much.

This is particularly important if you exercise in the evening.

“Especially after dinner, you need to know what your body will do when you exercise,” she says. “If you go to bed and glucose drops it can create a dangerous clinical situation.”

Exercising after a meal is a good way to reduce blood glucose levels and lower your risk of complications from diabetes, including heart disease.

But, before starting or changing your exercise regimen, talk with your doctor to determine what is best for you.

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At first, the goal of treatment is to lower your high blood glucose level. Long-term goals are to prevent complications. These are health problems that can result from having diabetes.

The most important way to treat and manage type 2 diabetes is by being active and eating healthy foods.

Everyone with diabetes should receive proper education and support about the best ways to manage their diabetes. Ask your provider about seeing a certified diabetes care and education specialist and a dietitian.

Learning diabetes management skills will help you live well with diabetes. These skills help prevent health problems and the need for medical care. Skills include:

  • How to test and record your blood glucose
  • What, when, and how much to eat
  • How to safely increase your activity and control your weight
  • How to take medicines, if needed
  • How to recognize and treat low and high blood sugar
  • How to handle sick days
  • Where to buy diabetes supplies and how to store them

It may take several months to learn these skills. Keep learning about diabetes, its complications, and how to control and live well with the disease. Stay up-to-date on new research and treatments. Make sure you are getting information from trustworthy sources, such as your provider and diabetes educator.


Checking your blood sugar level yourself and writing down the results tells you how well you are managing your diabetes. Talk to your provider and diabetes educator about how often to check.

To check your blood sugar level, you use a device called a glucose meter. Usually, you prick your finger with a small needle, called a lancet. This gives you a tiny drop of blood. You place the blood on a test strip and put the strip into the meter. The meter gives you a reading that tells you the level of your blood sugar.

Your provider or diabetes educator will help set up a testing schedule for you. Your provider will help you set a target range for your blood sugar numbers. Keep these factors in mind:

  • Most people with type 2 diabetes only need to check their blood sugar once or twice a day.
  • If your blood sugar level is under control, you may only need to check it a few times a week.
  • You may test yourself when you wake up, before meals, and at bedtime.
  • You may need to test more often when you are sick or under stress.
  • You may need to test more often if you are having more frequent low blood sugar symptoms.

Keep a record of your blood sugar for yourself and your provider. Based on your numbers, you may need to make changes to your meals, activity, or medicines to keep your blood sugar level in the right range. Always bring your blood glucose meter to medical appointments so the data can be downloaded and discussed.

Your provider may recommend that you use a continuous glucose monitor (CGM) to measure blood sugar if:

  • You are using insulin injections many times a day
  • You have had an episode of severe low blood sugar
  • Your blood sugar level varies a lot

The CGM has a sensor that is inserted just under the skin to measure glucose in your tissue fluid every 5 minutes.


Work closely with your health care providers to learn how much fat, protein, and carbohydrates you need in your diet. Your meal plans should fit your lifestyle and habits and should include foods that you like.

Managing your weight and having a well-balanced diet are important. Some people with type 2 diabetes can stop taking medicines after losing weight. This does not mean that their diabetes is cured. They still have diabetes.

Obese people whose diabetes is not well managed with diet and medicine may consider weight loss (bariatric) surgery.


Regular activity is important for everyone. It is even more important when you have diabetes. Exercise is good for your health because it:

  • Lowers your blood sugar level without medicine
  • Burns extra calories and fat to help manage your weight
  • Improves blood flow and blood pressure
  • Increases your energy level
  • Improves your ability to handle stress

Talk to your provider before starting any exercise program. People with type 2 diabetes may need to take special steps before, during, and after physical activity or exercise, including adjusting doses of insulin if needed.


If diet and exercise do not help keep your blood sugar at normal or near-normal levels, your provider may prescribe medicine. Since these drugs help lower your blood sugar level in different ways, your provider may have you take more than one drug.

Some of the most common types of medicines are listed below. They are taken by mouth or injection.

  • Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors
  • Biguanides
  • Bile acid sequestrants
  • DPP-4 inhibitors
  • Injectable medicines (GLP-1 analogs)
  • Meglitinides
  • SGLT2 inhibitors
  • Sulfonylureas
  • Thiazolidinediones

You may need to take insulin if your blood sugar cannot be controlled with some of the above medicines. Most commonly, insulin is injected under the skin using a syringe, insulin pen, or pump. Another form of insulin is the inhaled type. Insulin cannot be taken by mouth because the acid in the stomach destroys the insulin.

Your provider may prescribe medicines or other treatments to reduce your chance of developing some of the more common complications of diabetes, including:

People with diabetes are more likely than those without diabetes to have foot problems. Diabetes damages the nerves. This can make your feet less able to feel pressure, pain, heat, or cold. You may not notice a foot injury until you have severe damage to the skin and tissue below, or you get a severe infection.

Diabetes can also damage blood vessels. Small sores or breaks in the skin may become deeper skin sores (ulcers). The affected limb may need to be amputated if these skin ulcers do not heal or become larger, deeper, or infected.

To prevent problems with your feet:

    if you smoke.
  • Improve control of your blood sugar.
  • Get a foot exam by your provider at least twice a year to learn if you have nerve damage.
  • Ask your provider to check your feet for problems such as calluses, bunions or hammertoes. These need to be treated to prevent skin breakdown and ulcers.
  • Check and care for your feet every day. This is very important when you already have nerve or blood vessel damage or foot problems.
  • Treat minor infections, such as athlete's foot, right away.
  • Use moisturizing lotion on dry skin.
  • Make sure you wear the right kind of shoes. Ask your provider what type of shoe is right for you.

Living with diabetes can be stressful. You may feel overwhelmed by everything you need to do to manage your diabetes. But taking care of your emotional health is just as important as your physical health.

Ways to relieve stress include:

  • Listening to relaxing music
  • Meditating to take your mind off your worries
  • Deep breathing to help relieve physical tension
  • Doing yoga, taichi, or progressive relaxation

Feeling sad or down (depressed) or anxious sometimes is normal. But if you have these feelings often and they're getting in the way of managing your diabetes, talk with your health care team. They can find ways to help you feel better.

People with diabetes should make sure to keep up on their vaccination schedule.

What Are the Risks of Intermittent Fasting?

Some dieticians warn that ignoring hunger cues can have unforeseen consequences. Evelyn Tribole, registered dietitian and author of The Intuitive Eating Workbook, encourages her clients to listen to their hunger and satiety cues when choosing to eat rather than adhering to strict dietary rules. Tribole thinks ignoring these primal signals is a dangerous practice.

“I have a problem when someone is actually feeling biological hunger and you’re going to disregard that,” Tribole says. “I think that’s problematic, especially with anyone who has a dieting history or an eating disorder they’re more likely to get engaged in binge eating and emotional eating.”

Anyone with a history of disordered eating patterns should consult a health professional to confirm that IF is right for them.

One systematic review published in the journal Stress in 2016, found that IF may initially increase stress levels of fasters. The increase may subside after a few weeks of fasting. Other research says IF could cause greater metabolic fluctuations and increased appetite on non-fasting days relative to intermittent energy restriction, a diet that allows some food.


Reversing insulin resistance is the most important thing you can do for your health. And frankly, it’s not even that hard.

Just 24hr of a fast makes insulin drop by half.

But instead, doctors tell patients to continue eating carbs throughout the day and pump themselves full of drugs.

Reverse this trend. The carnivore diet is the best way to reverse insulin resistance.

If you’re interested in the carnivore diet, join my Facebook group Carnivore Nation. If you’re interested in a more comprehensive guide, sign up for my weekly newsletter for FREE access to the 30 Day Guide to Mastering the Carnivore Diet below.

Watch the video: ΕΠΟΧΙΚΑ ΕΡΓΑΖΟΜΕΝΟΙ ΣΤΟΝ ΤΟΥΡΙΣΜΟ - Όσα πρέπει να γνωρίζουν Σταύρος Μονεμβασιώτης (August 2022).