Differentiating between hormones triggered on specific types of happiness?

Differentiating between hormones triggered on specific types of happiness?

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Achievement:- Dopamine

Applause:- Seratonin

Discovering something new:-?

Remembering something after a long time/struggle:-?


Lust ;-Testosterone/Estrogen

Romantic Love:- Dopamine?

Attachment:- Oxytocin or Vasopressin?

Cuddling pets/babies:- Oxytocin or Vasopressin?

Motherhood:- Oxytocin & Vasopressin?

Also, is happiness in all cases equal? I mean that is happiness just differing in magnitude rather than type when comparing different activities? For eg, happiness on discovering something new is the same exact as happiness on kissing your crush, just differing magnitude and triggered by a different hormone?

Like in video games, we have damage versus status effect (losing hitpoints versus getting paralyzed or stunned), is that a better analogy to the various kinds of happiness or is it more like fire damage versus ice damage,


Hormones are molecules released by a group of cells in the body that influence the behavior of another group of cells. Hormones are the chemical signals of the endocrine system, the group of glands that, along with the nervous system, controls the body's responses to internal and external stimuli. Hormones are carried to their target cells in the bloodstream.

All hormones bind at the target cell to a specific receptor, a protein made by the target cell. When the hormone binds to the receptor, it causes a change in the receptor's conformation , or shape. This conformation change allows the receptor to fit with other cell molecules in a way it could not before, thus triggering new activities in the cell. While a hormone such as testosterone (produced in the testes) reaches all cells in the body, only some cells have testosterone receptors, and therefore only those cells are sensitive to testosterone's effects. Similarly, different receiving cells make different sets of molecules to interact with the testosterone receptor, and this controls the exact response the target cell exhibits.

Hormones are classified based on their chemical structures. Peptide hormones are chains of amino acids . Insulin and glucagon, which help control blood sugar, are peptide hormones, as are the hormones of the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland. Steroid hormones are lipids (fatlike molecules) whose structures are derived from cholesterol. Hormones of the sex organs and the adrenal cortex (part of the adrenal gland) are steroids. Monoamine hormones are made by modifying amino acids. These hormones include adrenaline and noradrenaline made by the adrenal medulla, thyroid hormone (thyroxine), and melatonin from the pineal gland in the brain.

Hormones also differ in where their receptors are found in the target cell, and the type of effect they cause when they bind to their receptors. The receptor for thyroxine is located in the nucleus , while the receptors for steroid hormones are found in the cell's cytoplasm . In both cases, the hormone binds to the receptor to form a complex, and then the hormone-receptor complex activates specific genes within the nucleus, leading to synthesis of new proteins.

Adrenaline, noradrenaline, and the peptide hormones do not enter the target cell. Instead, they bind to a receptor on the membrane surface. The receptor extends through the membrane, and when the outside portion binds to the hormone, the inside portion of the receptor undergoes a conformation change. This change sets off a cascade of reactions inside the cell, ultimately leading to an increase in concentration of one or another internal messenger molecules. The most common of these so-called "second messengers" (the hormone is the ȯirst messenger") are calcium ion and cyclic AMP (cAMP), a type of nucleotide . The second messenger then triggers other activities in the cell, depending on the cell type. In muscle, adrenaline causes cAMP buildup, which causes breakdown of glycogen to release glucose , which the muscle cell uses to support increased activity.

Hormones that bind to external receptors and work through second messengers affect pre-existing proteins within the cell. Because of this, they typically cause much faster effects than those that bind to internal receptors, which influence creation of new proteins. For example, adrenaline's effects last from minutes to hours at the most, while testosterone's effects last from days to months or more.

Lipid-Derived Hormones

Maintaining homeostasis within the body requires the coordination of many different systems and organs. Communication between neighboring cells, and between cells and tissues in distant parts of the body, occurs through the release of chemicals called hormones. Hormones are released into body fluids (usually blood) that carry these chemicals to their target cells. At the target cells, which are cells that have a receptor for a signal or ligand from a signal cell, the hormones elicit a response. The cells, tissues, and organs that secrete hormones make up the endocrine system. Examples of glands of the endocrine system include the adrenal glands, which produce hormones such as epinephrine and norepinephrine that regulate responses to stress, and the thyroid gland, which produces thyroid hormones that regulate metabolic rates.

Most lipid hormones are derived from cholesterol and thus are structurally similar to it, as illustrated in Figure 1. The primary class of lipid hormones in humans is the steroid hormones. Chemically, these hormones are usually ketones or alcohols their chemical names will end in “-ol” for alcohols or “-one” for ketones. Examples of steroid hormones include estradiol, which is an estrogen, or female sex hormone, and testosterone, which is an androgen, or male sex hormone. These two hormones are released by the female and male reproductive organs, respectively. Other steroid hormones include aldosterone and cortisol, which are released by the adrenal glands along with some other types of androgens. Steroid hormones are insoluble in water, and they are transported by transport proteins in blood. As a result, they remain in circulation longer than peptide hormones. For example, cortisol has a half-life of 60 to 90 minutes, while epinephrine, an amino acid derived-hormone, has a half-life of approximately one minute.

Figure 1. The structures shown here represent (a) cholesterol, plus the steroid hormones (b) testosterone and (c) estradiol.

List of important hormones and their functions

Hormones are secreted in the body by several glands that are essential for the growth, development, reproduction, etc. They are the chemical substances which coordinate the activities of living organisms and also their growth. They are secreted by special tissues in our body through endocrine glands.

Different hormones have different effects on the shape of the body. Some of these hormones work quickly to start or stop a process and some will continually work over a long period of time to perform their functions. They help in body growth, development, metabolism, sexual function, reproduction etc. What happens to the body when these hormones will release in more or less quantity. This article deals with the list of important hormones necessary for our body functions.

List of important hormones and their functions.

1. Hormones of Thyroid
Thyroid gland basically releases two hormones Triiodothyronine (T3) and Thyroxine (T4), which helps in controlling the metabolism of our body. Further, these hormones regulate weight, determines energy levels, internal body temperature, skin, hair etc.

This hormone is released by the pancreas, a leaf-like gland located in the abdominal cavity behind the stomach. It allows the body to use glucose or sugar from carbohydrates in the food for energy or to store glucose for future use. It helps in keeping blood sugar level from getting too high i.e. hyperglycemia or too low i.e. hypoglycemia.

3. Estrogen
It is a female sex hormone released by the ovaries. It is responsible for the reproduction, menstruation and menopause. Excess of estrogen in the female body increases the risk of breast cancer, uterine cancer, depression, moodiness etc. If the estrogen level is less in female body then it leads to acne, skin lesions, thinning skin, hair loss etc.

4. Progesterone
Progesterone hormone is produced in the ovaries, the placenta when a woman gets pregnant and the adrenal glands. It stimulates and regulates various functions. It plays an important role in maintaining pregnancy. It helps body to prepare for conception, pregnancy and regulates the monthly cycle. When pregnancy doesn’t occur, progesterone levels drop and menstrual cycle occurs. It also plays a role in sexual desire.

5. Prolactin
This hormone is released by the pituitary gland after childbirth for lactation, which enables female to breastfeed. Levels of prolactin hormone rise during pregnancy i.e. it also plays an important role in fertility by inhibiting follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH).

6. Testosterone

It is a male sex hormone. It is an anabolic steroid by nature which helps in building body muscles. In males, it plays an important role in the development of male reproductive tissues testes and prostate. It also promotes secondary sexual characteristics like increasing the mass of muscles and bones, growth of body hair etc. If testosterone is secreted insufficient in men then it may lead to abnormalities including frailty and bone loss.

7. Serotonin
It is a mood-boosting effect hormone or also known as nature’s feel-good chemical. It is associated with learning and memory, regulating sleep, digestion, regulates mood, some muscular functions etc. Due to the imbalance of serotonin in the body, brain does not produce enough of the hormone to regulate mood or stress level. Low level of serotonin causes depression, migraine, weight gain, insomnia, craving of carbohydrate etc. Excess level of serotonin in the body causes agitation, stage of confusion, sedation etc.

This hormone is produced by the adrenal gland. It helps you stay healthy and energetic. Its main role is to control physical and psychological stress. In danger condition, it increases heart rate, blood pressure, respiration etc. At stressful times body secretes cortisol to cope up with the situation. High level of cortisol consistently causes ulcer, high blood pressure, anxiety, high levels of cholesterol etc. Similarly, a low level of cortisol in the body causes alcoholism, a condition responsible for chronic fatigue syndrome etc.

9. Adrenaline
Adrenaline hormone is secreted in the medulla in the adrenal gland as well as some of the central nervous system’s neurons. It is also known as an emergency hormone because it initiates the quick reaction which makes the individual to think and respond quickly to the stress. It increases the metabolic rate, dilation of blood vessels going to the heart and the brain. During a stressful situation, adrenaline quickly releases into the blood, send impulses to the organs to create a specific response.

10. Growth Hormone
It is also known as somatotropin hormone. It is basically a protein hormone having 190 amino acids which are synthesised and secreted by the cells called somatotrophs in the anterior pituitary. It stimulates growth, cell reproduction cell regeneration and in boosting metabolism. It is important in human development.

So, now you may have come to know about the various hormones and their functions in the human body.

Hormone Regulation

Hormones may be regulated by other hormones, by glands and organs, and by a negative feedback mechanism. Hormones that regulate the release of other hormones are called tropic hormones. The majority of tropic hormones are secreted by the anterior pituitary in the brain. The hypothalamus and thyroid gland also secrete tropic hormones. The hypothalamus produces the tropic hormone thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), which stimulates the pituitary to release thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). TSH is a tropic hormone that stimulates the thyroid gland to produce and secrete more thyroid hormones.

Organs and glands also aid in hormonal regulation by monitoring blood content. For example, the pancreas monitors glucose concentrations in the blood. If glucose levels are too low, the pancreas will secrete the hormone glucagon to raise glucose levels. If glucose levels are too high, the pancreas secretes insulin to lower glucose levels.

In negative feedback regulation, the initial stimulus is reduced by the response it provokes. The response eliminates the initial stimulus and the pathway is halted. Negative feedback is demonstrated in the regulation of red blood cell production or erythropoiesis. The kidneys monitor oxygen levels in the blood. When oxygen levels are too low, the kidneys produce and release a hormone called erythropoietin (EPO). EPO stimulates red bone marrow to produce red blood cells. As blood oxygen levels return to normal, the kidneys slow the release of EPO, resulting in decreased erythropoiesis.

Only Four Basic Emotions Exist, Researchers Say

On each experimental trial, the Generative Face Grammar platform randomly selected from a total of 41 a subset of action units and values specifying their temporal parameters, represented as color-coded curves. The dynamic action units were then combined to produce a 3D facial animation, illustrated here with four snapshots and corresponding color-coded temporal parameter curves. Naive observers categorized the random facial animation according to six emotions plus don’t know if the movements correlated with their subjective perceptual expectations of that emotion – here, fear. Each observer categorized a total of 2,400 random facial animations displayed on same-race faces of both sexes. Image credit: adapted from Rachael E. Jack et al, 2014.

A commonly-held belief, first proposed by Dr Paul Ekman, posits there are six basic emotions – happiness, sadness, fear, anger, surprise and disgust, which are universally recognized and easily interpreted through specific facial expressions.

But the Glasgow team challenges this view. The researchers claim that while the facial expression signals of happiness and sadness are clearly distinct across time, fear and surprise share a common signal – the wide open eyes – early in the signaling dynamics. Similarly, anger and disgust share the wrinkled nose. It is these early signals that could represent more basic danger signals. Later in the signaling dynamics, facial expressions transmit signals that distinguish all six ‘classic’ facial expressions of emotion.

“Our results are consistent with evolutionary predictions, where signals are designed by both biological and social evolutionary pressures to optimize their function,” said Dr Rachael Jack, who is the first author of a paper published in the journal Current Biology.

“First, early danger signals confer the best advantages to others by enabling the fastest escape. Secondly, physiological advantages for the expresser – the wrinkled nose prevents inspiration of potentially harmful particles, whereas widened eyes increases intake of visual information useful for escape – are enhanced when the face movements are made early.”

“What our research shows is that not all facial muscles appear simultaneously during facial expressions, but rather develop over time supporting a hierarchical biologically-basic to socially-specific information over time.”

Dr Jack with colleagues used special techniques and software called Generative Face Grammar platform to synthesize all facial expressions.

The platform uses cameras to capture a three-dimensional image of faces of individuals specially trained to be able to activate all 42 individual facial muscles independently. From this a computer can then generate specific or random facial expressions on a 3D model based on the activation of different Actions Units or groups of units to mimic all facial expressions.

By asking volunteers to observe the realistic model as it pulled various expressions – thereby providing a true four-dimensional experience – and state which emotion was being expressed the researchers are able to see which specific Action Units observers associate with particular emotions.

It was through this method they found that the signals for fear/surprise and anger/disgust were confused at the early stage of transmission and only became clearer later when other Action Units were activated.

“Our research questions the notion that human emotion communication comprises six basic, psychologically irreducible categories. Instead we suggest there are four basic expressions of emotion. We show that ‘basic’ facial expression signals are perceptually segmented across time and follow an evolving hierarchy of signals over time – from the biologically-rooted basic signals to more complex socially-specific signals,” Dr Jack said.

“Over time, and as humans migrated across the globe, socio-ecological diversity probably further specialized once-common facial expressions, altering the number, variety and form of signals across cultures.”

The team is planning to develop their study by looking at facial expressions of different cultures, including East Asian populations whom they have already ascertained interpret some of the six classical emotions differently – placing more emphasis on eye signals than mouth movements compared to Westerners.

Differences between Enzymes and Hormones

Enzymes are the biological catalyst which speed up the rate of biochemical reactions without undergoing any changes.

Hormones are molecules, usually a peptide (eg: insulin) or steroid (eg: estrogen) that is produced in one part of an organisms and triggers a specific cellular reactions in target tissues and organs some distance away.




5 thoughts on &ldquoDifferences between Enzymes and Hormones&rdquo

Metabolic functions means that, they are involved in breacking down of substance or larg organic molecules like food, but not invoved in production of substance in the body.

They are not used in metabolism meaning that THEY DO NOT PARTICIPATE IN BREAKING DOWN OF FOOD SUBSTANCES..
Rather they just speed up the rate of metabolization meaning that THEY WORK AS CATALIST

Can any one explain the point 13 that enzyme are not used in metabolic function. thanks in advance

metabolic function means that related to body physical activities not inner activities like digestion actually it is related to voluntary actions

Discussion Questions

  1. What are some of the problems associated with attempting to determine causation in a hormone–behavior interaction? What are the best ways to address these problems?
  2. Hormones cause changes in the rates of cellular processes or in cellular morphology. What are some ways that these hormonally induced cellular changes might theoretically produce profound changes in behavior?
  3. List and describe some behavioral sex differences that you have noticed between boys and girls. What causes girls and boys to choose different toys? Do you think that the sex differences you have noted arise from biological causes or are learned? How would you go about establishing your opinions as fact?
  4. Why is it inappropriate to refer to androgens as “male” hormones and estrogens as “female” hormones?
  5. Imagine that you discovered that the brains of architects were different from those of non-architects—specifically, that the “drawstraightem nuclei” of the right temporal lobe were enlarged in architects as compared with non-architects. Would you argue that architects were destined to be architects because of their brain organization or that experience as an architect changed their brains? How would you resolve this issue?

Intracellular Hormone Receptors

Lipid-derived (soluble) hormones such as steroid hormones diffuse across the membranes of the endocrine cell. Once outside the cell, they bind to transport proteins that keep them soluble in the bloodstream. At the target cell, the hormones are released from the carrier protein and diffuse across the lipid bilayer of the plasma membrane of cells. The steroid hormones pass through the plasma membrane of a target cell and adhere to intracellular receptors residing in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. The cell signaling pathways induced by the steroid hormones regulate specific genes on the cell’s DNA. The hormones and receptor complex act as transcription regulators by increasing or decreasing the synthesis of mRNA molecules of specific genes. This, in turn, determines the amount of corresponding protein that is synthesized by altering gene expression. This protein can be used either to change the structure of the cell or to produce enzymes that catalyze chemical reactions. In this way, the steroid hormone regulates specific cell processes as illustrated in Figure 18.5.

Figure 18.5. An intracellular nuclear receptor (NR) is located in the cytoplasm bound to a heat shock protein (HSP). Upon hormone binding, the receptor dissociates from the heat shock protein and translocates to the nucleus. In the nucleus, the hormone-receptor complex binds to a DNA sequence called a hormone response element (HRE), which triggers gene transcription and translation. The corresponding protein product can then mediate changes in cell function.

Heat shock proteins (HSP) are so named because they help refold misfolded proteins. In response to increased temperature (a “heat shock”), heat shock proteins are activated by release from the NR/HSP complex. At the same time, transcription of HSP genes is activated. Why do you think the cell responds to a heat shock by increasing the activity of proteins that help refold misfolded proteins?

Other lipid-soluble hormones that are not steroid hormones, such as vitamin D and thyroxine, have receptors located in the nucleus. The hormones diffuse across both the plasma membrane and the nuclear envelope, then bind to receptors in the nucleus. The hormone-receptor complex stimulates transcription of specific genes.

In stress there is suppression of circulating gonadotropins and gonadal steroid hormones leading to disruption of the normal menstrual cycle.[7] Prolonged exposure to stress can lead to complete impairment of reproductive function.[8] Gonadotrophin releasing hormone GnRH drive to the pituitary is decreased, probably due to increased endogenous CRH secretion.

Thyroid function is usually down-regulated during stressful conditions. T3 and T4 levels decrease with stress. Stress inhibits the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) secretion through the action of glucocorticoids on the central nervous system.[9]

Differentiating between hormones triggered on specific types of happiness? - Biology

Luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) are called gonadotropins because stimulate the gonads - in males, the testes, and in females, the ovaries. They are not necessary for life, but are essential for reproduction. These two hormones are secreted from cells in the anterior pituitary called gonadotrophs . Most gonadotrophs secrete only LH or FSH, but some appear to secrete both hormones.

As described for thyroid-simulating hormone, LH and FSH are large glycoproteins composed of alpha and beta subunits. The alpha subunit is identical in all three of these anterior pituitary hormones, while the beta subunit is unique and endows each hormone with the ability to bind its own receptor.

Physiologic Effects of Gonadotropins

Physiologic effects of the gonadotrophins are known only in the ovaries and testes. Together, they regulate many aspects of gonadal function in both males and females.

In both sexes, LH stimulates secretion of sex steroids from the gonads. In the testes, LH binds to receptors on Leydig cells, stimulating synthesis and secretion of testosterone. Theca cells in the ovary respond to LH stimulation by secretion of testosterone, which is converted into estrogen by adjacent granulosa cells.

In females, ovulation of mature follicles on the ovary is induced by a large burst of LH secretion known as the preovulatory LH surge. Residual cells within ovulated follicles proliferate to form corpora lutea, which secrete the steroid hormones progesterone and estradiol. Progesterone is necessary for maintenance of pregnancy, and, in most mammals, LH is required for continued development and function of corpora lutea. The name luteinizing hormone derives from this effect of inducing luteinization of ovarian follicles.

As its name implies, FSH stimulates the maturation of ovarian follicles. Administration of FSH to humans and animals induces "superovulation", or development of more than the usual number of mature follicles and hence, an increased number of mature gametes.

FSH is also critical for sperm production. It supports the function of Sertoli cells, which in turn support many aspects of sperm cell maturation.

Control of Gonadotropin Secretion

The principle regulator of LH and FSH secretion is gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH, also known as LH-releasing hormone). GnRH is a ten amino acid peptide that is synthesized and secreted from hypothalamic neurons and binds to receptors on gonadotrophs.

As depicted in the figure to the right, GnRH stimultes secretion of LH, which in turn stimulates gonadal secretion of the sex steroids testosterone, estrogen and progesterone. In a classical negative feedback loop, sex steroids inhibit secretion of GnRH and also appear to have direct negative effects on gonadotrophs.

This regulatory loop leads to pulsatile secretion of LH and, to a much lesser extent, FSH. The number of pulses of GnRH and LH varies from a few per day to one or more per hour. In females, pulse frequency is clearly related to stage of the cycle.

Numerous hormones influence GnRH secretion, and positive and negative control over GnRH and gonadotropin secretion is actually considerably more complex than depicted in the figure. For example, the gonads secrete at least two additional hormones - inhibin and activin - which selectively inhibit and activate FSH secretion from the pituitary.

Disease States

Diminished secretion of LH or FSH can result in failure of gonadal function (hypogonadism). This condition is typically manifest in males as failure in production of normal numbers of sperm. In females, cessation of reproductive cycles is commonly observed.

Elevated blood levels of gonadotropins usually reflect lack of steroid negative feedback. Removal of the gonads from either males or females, as is commonly done to animals, leads to persistent elevation in LH and FSH. In humans, excessive secretion of FSH and/or LH most commonly the result of gonadal failure or pituitary tumors. In general, elevated levels of gonadotropins per se have no biological effect.

Pharmacologic Manipulation of Gonadotropin Secretion

Normal patterns of gonadotropin secretion are absolutely required for reproduction, and interfering particularly with LH secretion is a widely-used strategy for contraception. Oral contraceptive pills contain a progestin (progesterone-mimicking compound), usually combined with an estrogen. As discussed above, progesterone and estrogen inhibit LH secretion, and oral contraceptives are effective because they inhibit the LH surge that induces ovulation.

Another route to suppressing gonadotropin secretion is to block the GnRH receptor. GnRH receptor antagonists have potent contraceptive effects in both males and females, but have not been widely deployed for that purpose.


Antidiuretic Hormone

A Hungarian translation of this page was created by Elana Pavlet and is available at Hungarian translation

A Ukrainian translation of this page was created by Olena Chervona and is available at Ukrainian translation

Watch the video: How Hormones Influence You and Your Mind (August 2022).